INTRODUCTORY ESSAY. 191
4 Kunawar; tli'e upper part'of tjie Satlej basin to the Ti-
betan districts of Piti and Guge.
5. Etdu; including Mandi and'Other, petty states in the
basin of the Beas.
6. Chamba; th£ basin of the Eavi.
7. Lahulf the highest and subtibetan* course of the Chenab,
8. Kishtwar"; the middle part of the Chenab basin.
9. Jamu; the lower partxrf the Chenab b£siri, including
10. Eajaori; th^ states between Kashmir and'the plains.
12. Hazara or Marn.
In consequence of/the increased distance from the sea, and
partly also from tne great obliquity of many of the great
mountain ranges; the,, rain-fall in the Western Himalaya is
much less considerable than it is in- th§ Central and Eastern.
The rain-fall also diminishes, cateris paribus, regularly and
gradually from east' to west, but the, amount varies so much
with local circumstances that, unless used with proper cau-
tion; absolute nurqters are apt to mislead. Thus, while the
average rain-fall 4at Naiai Td, elevated 6500 feet on the last
spurs' of the Gagar overhanging the plains of EoLilkhand,
is 88 inches, at Almora, elevated 5500 feet, but fifteen miles
further from the plains,' only 3i inches fall. The fall at Naini
Tal iriay however be compared with that of Dorjilirig (125
inches), for in both these localities there is no considerable
amount of higher land interposed between them and, the
plains of Ifldia* The rain-fall at Masuri and at Simla is ma-
Tho vegetation of the Western Himalaya alters with the
climate, presenting a yery gradual transition frorr the flora
of Nipal to that of the arid Afghan hills. This is the case
equally in the tropical, temperate, and alpine zones of vegeta-
tion, and in the interior as well as in the exterior Himalaya. %
In the tropical* zone of Kumaon a dense forest skirts the
base of the mountains, corresponding in 'all its features with